ASD VSD Closure
Signs and symptoms are related to the type and severity of the heart defect. Symptoms frequently present early in life, but it's possible for some CHDs to go undetected throughout life. Some children have no signs while others may exhibit shortness of breath, cyanosis, syncope, heart murmur, under-developing of limbs and muscles, poor feeding or growth, or respiratory infections. Congenital heart defects cause abnormal heart structure resulting in production of certain sounds called heart murmur. These can sometimes be detected by auscultation; however, not all heart murmurs are caused by congenital heart defects.
Congenital heart defects are associated with an increased incidence of some other symptoms, together being called the VACTERL association:
* V-Vertebral Anomalies
* A-Anal Atresia
* C-Cardiovascular Anomalies
* T-Tracheoesophageal fistula
* E-Esophageal Atresia
* R-Renal Anomalies
* L-Limb Defects
Ventricular septal defect (VSD), atrial septal defects, and tetralogy of Fallot are the most common congenital heart defects seen in the VACTERL association. Less common defects in the association are truncus arteriosus, and transposition of the great arteries.
The cause of congenital heart disease may be either genetic or environmental, but is usually a combination of both.