ASD VSD Closure

Signs and symptoms are related to the type and severity of the heart defect. Symptoms frequently present early in life, but it's possible for some CHDs to go undetected throughout life.[3] Some children have no signs while others may exhibit shortness of breath, cyanosis, syncope,[4] heart murmur, under-developing of limbs and muscles, poor feeding or growth, or respiratory infections. Congenital heart defects cause abnormal heart structure resulting in production of certain sounds called heart murmur. These can sometimes be detected by auscultation; however, not all heart murmurs are caused by congenital heart defects.
Congenital heart defects are associated with an increased incidence of some other symptoms, together being called the VACTERL association:
   *   V-Vertebral Anomalies
   *   A-Anal Atresia
   *   C-Cardiovascular Anomalies
   *   T-Tracheoesophageal fistula
   *   E-Esophageal Atresia
   *   R-Renal Anomalies
   *   L-Limb Defects
Ventricular septal defect (VSD), atrial septal defects, and tetralogy of Fallot are the most common congenital heart defects seen in the VACTERL association. Less common defects in the association are truncus arteriosus, and transposition of the great arteries.

Causes

The cause of congenital heart disease may be either genetic or environmental, but is usually a combination of both.

Genetics

Most of the known causes of congenital heart disease are sporadic genetic changes, either focal mutations or deletion or addition of segments of DNA. Large chromosomal abnormalities such as trisomies 21, 13, and 18 cause about 5-8% of cases of CHD, with trisomy 21 being the most common genetic cause. The genes regulating the complex developmental sequence have only been partly elucidated. Some genes are associated with specific defects. A number of genes have been associated with cardiac manifestations. Mutations of a heart muscle protein, α-myosin heavy chain (MYH6) are associated with atrial septal defects. Several proteins that interact with MYH6 are also associated with cardiac defects. The transcription factor GATA4 forms a complex with the TBX5 which interacts with MYH6. Another factor, the homeobox (developmental) gene, NKX2-5 also interacts with MYH6. Mutations of all these proteins are associated with both atrial and ventricular septal defects; In addition, NKX2-5 is associated with defects in the electrical conduction of the heart and TBX5 is related to the Holt-Oram syndrome which includes electrical conduction defects and abnormalities of the upper limb. Another T-box gene, TBX1, is involved in velo-cardio-facial syndrome DiGeorge syndrome, the most common deletion which has extensive symptoms including defects of the cardiac outflow tract including tetralogy of Fallot.

 

Treatment

Sometimes CHD improves without treatment. Other defects are so small that they do not require any treatment. Most of the time CHD is serious and requires surgery and/or medications. Medications include diuretics, which aid the body in eliminating water, salts, and digoxin for strengthening the contraction of the heart. This slows the heartbeat and removes some fluid from tissues. Some defects require surgical procedures to restore circulation back to normal and in some cases, multiple surgeries are needed. Interventional cardiology now offers patients minimally invasive alternatives to surgery. Device closures can now be performed with a standard transcatheter procedure using a closure device mounted on a balloon catheter.
Most patients require life-long specialized cardiac care, first with a pediatic cardiologist and later with and adult congenital cardiologist. There are more than 1.8 million adults living with congenital heart defects.

Equipment

A catheterization laboratory or cath lab is required for treatment of congenital cardiac defects like ASD and VSD closure. Sometimes surgery is also required for the treatment of these diseases. Not all hospital having cath lab have a good Cardiac OT backed by experienced Cardiac surgeons and Cardiac Anaesthetists. One must check the status of all the cardiac equipments before deciding on the treatment.

Best Hospitals / Doctors for this procedure

Since the congenital heart diseases are mostly found in children a good paediatric interventional cardiologist or a paediatric cardiac surgeon is best suited for the treatment of these diseases. Some of the best doctors for ASD VSD Closure can be seen on the link below:

Best Doctors for ASD VSD Closure

 

 

Angiolplasty

Angioplasty (or balloon angioplasty) is an endovascular procedure to widen narrowed or obstructed arteries or veins, typically to treat arterial atherosclerosis.    Read More

CABG

CABG or Coronary Artery Bypass Surgery is required in patients wehere there are more than 2 blockages or in medical terminology Tripple Vessel Disease   Read More

LVAD - Left Ventricular Assisted Device

LVAD or Left Ventricular Assisted Device is a boon for patient who are suffering from End Stage Heart Disease and are not getting a heart transplant.   Read More

Heart and Lung Transplant

Heart failure is a condition in which the heart is damaged or weak. As a result, it can't pump enough blood to meet the body's needs. Read More

AVR MVR

Valvular heart disease is a form of heart disease that occurs when one or more of the heart’s four valves don’t function properly....  Read More

ASD VSD Closure

ASD VSD is a hole in the wall separating the two chambers of the heart. In normal development, the wall between the chambers closes before the fetus is born...  Read More

Dr K R Balakrishnan

Dr. K R Balakrishnan is an expert in the management of end-stage heart failure and credited with India’s First LVAD and HVAD pump implant as destination therapy.   Read More

Dr Ashok Seth

Dr. Ashok Seth is vastly experienced interventional cardiologist have done large number of minimally invasive cardiology procedures.  Read More

Dr K S Iyer

Dr K S Iyer is one of the best paediatric cardiologist in India with vast experience in treating children with ASD/VSD issues   Read More

Dr Z S Mehrawal

Dr Z S Mehrawal is a very senior and a decorated cardiac surgeon with experince of more than 25 years and 20000 surgeries  Read More

Dr Sandeep Attawar

Dr. Sandeep Attawar is one of the best heart and lung transplant surgeons in India with experience of more than 10000 surgeries   Read More

Dr Rajneesh Kapoor

Dr. Rajneesh Kapoor is one of the best cardiologist at Medanta Medicity, Gurgaon, India. He specialises in all kinds of coronary intervention procedures.  Read More

Dr Sanjeev Choudhary

Dr. Sanjeev Chaudhary is an Interventional Cardiologist attached to W Hospital Gurgaon, India.  Read More

Dr M S Sandhu

Dr. (Col) MS Sandhu was the Senior Consultant (Hon’y) Interventional Cardiology at Batra Hospital and Medical Research Center, New Delhi before joining Artemis.  Read More

 

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Best Paediatric Cardiologist for ASD VSD Closure in India, Best Paediatric Cardiac Surgeon in India, Best Hospital for ASD VSD Closure in India, Dr K S Iyer Best Paediatric Cardiologist and Surgeon in India, Cost of ASD VSD Closure Surgery in India   Best Paediatric Cardiologist for ASD VSD Closure in India, Best Paediatric Cardiac Surgeon in India, Best Hospital for ASD VSD Closure in India, Dr K S Iyer Best Paediatric Cardiologist and Surgeon in India, Cost of ASD VSD Closure Surgery in India

 

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